rss · Субота, 17.11.2018, 07:48

Опитування

Будинок Культури
1. Необхідний в Червоному
2. Мені це не цікаво
3. Замість БК - магазин
4. Є інші заклади, там краще
5. Не потрібен Червоному
6. Надам фінансову допомогу
7. Маю спонсора на ремонт
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Форум селища міського типу Червоне, Червоне - зробимо кращим »  Школопедія (Школопедия) » Англійська мова » Граматика англійської мови. (Граматика англійської мови.)
Граматика англійської мови.
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:10 | Повідомлення № 121
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Unit 121

Noun + preposition (`reason for', `cause of' etc.)

Посмотрите на список конструкций существительное

+ предлог. Иногда и другие предлоги возможны -

более подробную информацию см. в хорошем словаре.

a cheque FOR (a sum of money):

- They sent me a cheque for $ 50.

a demand / a need FOR something:

- The firm closed down because there wasn't enough demand

for its product.

a reason FOR something:

- The train was late but no-one knew the reason for the delay.

a rise / an increase / a fall / a decrease IN something:

- There has been an increase in road accidents recently.

an advantage / a disadvantage OF something:

- The advantage of living alone is that you can do what you like.

однако говорят `there is an advantage in doing something':

- There are many advantages in living alone.

a cause OF something:

- Nobody knows what the cause of the explosion was.

a photograph / a picture OF someone/something:

- He always keeps a photograph of his wife in his wallet.

damage TO something:

- The accident was my fault, so I paid for the damage to the

other car.

an invitation TO a party / a wedding etc.:

- Did you get an invitation to the party?

a reaction TO something:

- I was surprised at his reaction to what I said.

a solution TO a problem / an answer TO a question /

a reply TO a letter/ a key TO a door:

- Do you think we'll find a solution to this problem.

- The answer to your question is `No'!

an attitude TO/TOWARDS someone/something:

- His attitude to/towards his job is very negative.

a relationship / a connection / contact WITH someone/something:

- Do you have a good relationship with your parents?

- Police want to question a man in connection with the robbery.

однако: a relationship / a connection / contact / a difference BETWEEN two things:

- Police have said that there is no connection between

the two murders.

- There are some differences between British English and

American English.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:10 | Повідомлення № 122
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Unit 122

Preposition + noun (`by mistake', `on television' etc.)

Студенты часто употребляют неправильные предлоги

перед словами данного урока. Поэтому изучите эти

примеры тщательно:

to pay BY cheque (однако `to pay IN cash' или `to pay cash'):

- Did you pay by cheque or in cash?

(to do something) BY accident / BY mistake / BY chance:

- We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.

a play BY Shakespeare / a painting BY Rembrandt /

a novel BY Tolstoy и т.д.:

- Have you read any books by Agatha Christie? (= any books

written by Agatha Christie?)

(to be / to fall) IN love WITH someone:

- Have you ever been in love with anyone?

IN (my) opinion:

- In my opinion the film wasn't very good.

(to be) ON fire:

- Look! That car is on fire.

(to be) ON the telephone / ON the phone:

- You can't phone me. I'm not on the phone. (= I haven't got a phone)

- I've never met her but I've spoken to her on the phone.

ON television / ON the radio:

- I didn't watch the match on television. I listened to it on the

radio.

(to be / to go) ON a diet:

- I've put on a lot of weight. I'll have to go on a diet.

(to be / to go) ON strike:

- There are no trains today. The railway workers are on strike.

(to be/to go) ON holiday / ON business / ON a trip / ON a tour /

ON an excursion / ON a cruise / ON an expedition etc.

- Tom's away at the moment. He is on holiday in France.

- Did you go to Paris on business or on holiday?

- One day I'd like to go on a world tour.

однако, можно сказать

`go to a place FOR a holiday / FOR my holiday(s)':

- Tom has gone to France for a holiday.

- Where are you going for your holidays this year?

(to go / to come) FOR a walk / FOR a swim / FOR a drink и т.д.:

- She always goes for a walk with her dog in the morning.

- After work we went to a cafe for a drink.

(to have something) FOR breakfast / FOR lunch / FOR dinner:

- What did you have for lunch?



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:11 | Повідомлення № 123
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Unit 123

Adjective + preposition (1)

Посмотрите на список конструкций прилагательное

+ предлог. Иногда возможны и другие предлоги.

Более подробную информацию см.в хорошем словаре.

nice/kind/good/generous/mean/stupid/silly/intelligent/clever/sensible/

(im)polite/rude/unreasonable OF someone (to do something):

- Thank you. It was very nice/kind of you to help me.

- It's stupid of her to go out without a coat. She'll catch cold.

однако: (to be) nice/kind/good/generous/mean/(im)polite/rude/

(un)pleasant/(un)friendly/cruel TO someone:

- She has always been very nice/kind to me. (но не `with me')

- Why were you so rude/unfriendly to Ann?

angry/annoyed/furious | ABOUT something

| WITH someone FOR doing something:

- What are you so angry/annoyed about?

- They were furious with me for not inviting them to the party.

delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed WITH something:

- I was delighted/pleased with the present you gave me.

- Were you disappointed with your examination results?

bored/fed up WITH something:

- You get bored/fed up with doing the same thing every day.

surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished AT/BY something:

- Everybody was surprised/shocked at/by the news.

excited/worried/upset ABOUT something:

- Are you excited about going on holiday next week?

- Ann is upset about not being invited to the party.

afraid/frightened/terrified/scared OF someone/something:

- `Are you afraid of dogs?' `Yes, I'm terrified of them.'

proud/ashamed OF someone/something:

- I'm not ashamed of what I did. In fact I'm quite proud of it.

jealous/envious/suspicious OF someone/something:

- Why are you always so jealous of other people?

- He didn't trust me. He was suspicious of my intentions.

aware/conscious OF something:

- `Did you know they were married?' `No, I wasn't aware of that.'

good/bad/excellent/brilliant/hopeless AT (doing) something:

- I'm not very good at repairing things.

married/engaged TO someone:

- Linda is married to an American. (но не `with an American')



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:11 | Повідомлення № 124
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Unit 124

Adjective + preposition (2)

Посмотрите на список конструкций

прилагательное + предлог:

sorry ABOUT something:

- I'm sorry about the noise last night. We were having a party.

однако: sorry FOR doing something:

- I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.

Однако обычно говорят: I'm sorry I...:

- I'm sorry I shouted at you yesterday.

(to feel / to be) sorry FOR someone:

- I feel sorry for George. He has got no friends and no money.

impressed BY/WITH someone/something:

- I wasn't very impressed by/with the film.

famous FOR something:

- The Italian city of Florence is famous for its art treasures.

responsible FOR something:

- Who was responsible for all that noise last night?

different FROM (или TO) someone/something

- The film was quite different from (или to) what expected.

interested IN something:

- Are you interested in art and architecture?

capable/incapable OF something:

- I'm sure you are capable of passing the examination.

fond OF someone/something:

- Mary is very fond of animals. She has three cats and two dogs.

full OF something:

- The letter I wrote was full of mistakes.

short OF something:

- I'm a bit short of money. Can you lend me some?

tired OF something:

- Come on, let's go! I'm tired of waiting.

keen ON something:

- We stayed at home because Ann wasn't very keen on going out

in the rain.

similar TO something:

- Your writing is similar to mine.

crowded WITH (people и т.д.):

- The city centre was crowded with tourists.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:12 | Повідомлення № 125
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Unit 125

Verb + preposition (1)

Посмотрите на список конструкций

глагол + предлог:

apologise (TO someone) FOR something (см. Unit 60a):

- When I realised I was wrong, I apologised to him for my mistake.

apply FOR a job/a place at university и т.д.:

- I think this job would suit you. Why don't you apply for it?

believe IN something:

- Do you believe in God? (= Do you believe that God exists?)

- I believe in saying what I think. (= I believe that it is a good

thing to say what I think.)

belong TO someone:

- Who does this coat belong to?

care ABOUT someone/something (= think someone/something is

important):

- He is very selfish. He doesn't care about other people.

care FOR someone/something:

i) = like something (обычно в вопросах и отрицательных

предложениях):

- Would you care for a cup of coffee? (= Would you like ...?)

- I don't care for hot weather. (= I don't like ...)

ii) = look after someone:

- She is very old. She needs someone to care for her.

take care OF someone/something (= look after):

- Have a nice holiday. Take care of yourself!

collide WITH someone/something:

- There was an accident this morning. A bus collided with a car.

complain (TO someone) ABOUT someone/something:

- We complained to the manager of the restaurant about the food.

concentrate ON something:

- Don't look out of the window. Concentrate on your work!

consist OF something:

- We had an enormous meal. It consisted of seven courses.

crash/drive/bump/run INTO someone/something:

- He lost control of the car and crashed into a wall.

depend ON someone/something:

- `What time will you arrive?' `I don't know. It depends on the

traffic.'

Можно опускать on перед вопросительными

словами (when/where/how и т.д.):

- `Are you going to buy it?' `It depends (on) how much it is.'

die OF an illness:

- `What did he die of?' `A heart attack.'



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:13 | Повідомлення № 126
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Unit 126

Verb + preposition (2)

Посмотрите на список конструкций

глагол + предлог:

dream ABOUT someone/something:

- I dreamt about you last night.

dream OF being something/doing something (= imagine):

- I often dream of being rich.

также: `(I) wouldn't dream (of doing something)':

- `Don't tell anyone what I said.' `No, I wouldn't dream of it.'

happen TO someone/something:

- A strange thing happened to me the other day.

- What happened to that gold watch you used to have?

hear ABOUT something (= be told about something):

- Did you hear about the fight in the club on Saturday night?

- Have you heard about Jane? She's getting married.

hear OF someone/something (= know that someone/something exists):

- `Who is Tom Madely?' `I have no idea. I've never heard of him.'

- Have you heard of a company called 'Smith Electrics'?

hear FROM someone (= receive a letter / telephone call from someone):

- `Have you heard from Ann recently?' `Yes, she wrote to me last

week.'

laugh/smile AT someone/something:

- I look stupid with this haircut. Everyone will laugh at me.

listen TO someone/something:

- We spent the evening listening to records.

live ON money/food:

- George's salary is very low. It isn't enough to live on.

look AT someone/something (= look in the direction of):

- Why are you looking at me like that?

также: have a look AT, stare AT, glance AT

look FOR someone/something (= try to find):

- I've lost my keys. Can you help me look for them?

look AFTER someone/something (= take care of):

- She's very old. She needs someone to look after her.

- You can borrow this book if you promise to look after it.

pay (someone) FOR something:

- I didn't have enough money to pay for the meal.

однако: pay a bill / a fine / $50 / a fare / taxes и т.д. (без предлога).

rely ON someone/something:

- You can rely on Jack. He always keeps his promises.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:13 | Повідомлення № 127
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Unit 127

Verb + preposition (3)

Посмотрите на список конструкций глагол + предлог:

search (a person / a place / a bag и т.д.) FOR someone/something:

- I've searched the whole house for my keys but I still can't

find them.

- The police are searching for the escaped prisoner.

shout AT someone (когда Вы сердитесь):

- He was very angry and started shouting at me.

однако: shout TO someone

(так, что они могут слышать Вас):

- He shouted to me from the other side of the street.

speak/talk TO someone (также можно использовать менее общепринятое `with'):

- (on the telephone) Hello, can I speak to Jane, please?

- Who was that man I saw you talking to in the pub?

suffer FROM an illness:

- The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased.

think ABOUT someone/something (= concentrate the mind on):

- You're quiet this morning. What are you thinking about?

- I've thought about what you said and I've decided to take your

advice.

- `Will you lend me the money?' `I'll think about it.'

think OF someone/something (= remember, bring to mind, have an idea):

- He told me his name but I can't think of it now.

(но не `think about it')

- That's a good idea. Why didn't I think of that?

Мы также используем think OF, когда интересуемся

чьим-то мнением или высказываем свое:

- `What did you think of the film?' `I didn't think much of it.'

Различие между think OF и think ABOUT иногда очень

мало. Часто можно употреблять либо OF, либо ABOUT:

- My sister is thinking of (или about) going to Canada.

- Tom was thinking of (или about) buying a new car but changed

his mind.

- When I'm alone, I often think of (или about) going to Canada.

wait FOR someone/something:

- I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting for the rain to stop.

write TO someone:

- Sorry I haven't written to you for such a long time


Мы не ставим предлогов со следующими глаголами:

phone someone Did you phone your father yesterday?

discuss something We discussed many things at the meeting.

enter (= go into a place) She felt nervous as she entered the room.


О конструкции глагол + предлог + -ing см.Unit 60a.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:14 | Повідомлення № 128
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Unit 128

Verb + Object + preposition (1)

Посмотрите на список конструкций

глагол + дополнение + предлог:

accuse someone OF (doing) something (см. также Unit 60b):

- Tom accused Ann of being selfish.

- Three students were accused of cheating in the examination.

ask (someone) FOR something:

- I wrote to the company asking them for more information about

the job.

однако: `ask (someone) a question' (без предлога)

blame someone/something FOR something:

- Everybody blamed me for the accident.

или blame something ON someone/something:

- Everybody blamed the accident on me.

Также говорят: `(someone is) to blame for something':

- Everybody said that I was to blame for the accident.

borrow something FROM someone:

- I didn't have any money. I had to borrow some from a friend of

mine.

charge someone WITH (an offence / a crime):

- Three men have been arrested and charged with robbery.

congratulate someone ON (doing) something (см. Unit 60b):

- When I heard that he had passed his examination, I phoned him

to congratulate him on his success.

divide/cut/split something INTO (две и более части):

- The book is divided into three parts.

- Cut the meat into small pieces before frying it.

do something ABOUT something

(= делать что-то, чтобы улучшить ситуацию):

- The economic situation is getting worse and worse. The

government ought to do something about it.

explain (a problem / a situation / a word и т.д.) TO someone:

- Can you explain this word to me?

(но не `explain me this word')

также: `explain (to someone) that/what/how/why ...'

(запомните порядок слов):

- Let me explain to you what I mean.

invite someone TO (a party / a wedding etc.):

- Have you been invited to any parties recently?

leave (a place) FOR (another place):

- I haven't seen her since she left home for work this morning.

point/aim something AT someone/something:

- Don't point that knife at me! It's dangerous.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:15 | Повідомлення № 129
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Unit 129

Verb + Object + preposition (2)

Посмотрите на список конструкций

глагол + дополнение + предлог:

prefer someone/something TO someone/something (см.Unit 64):

- I prefer tea to coffee.

protect someone/something FROM (или against) someone/something:

- He put sun-tan oil on his body to protect his skin from the sun.

(или ... against the sun.)

provide someone WITH something:

- The school provides all its students with books.

regard someone/something AS something:

- I've always regarded you as one of my best friends.

remind someone OF someone/something

(= вызывать воспоминания о чем-то):

- This house reminds me of the one I lived in when I was a child.

- Look at this photograph of Tom. Who does he remind you of?

однако: remind someone ABOUT something

(напоминать кому-то о чем-то):

- I'm glad you reminded me about the party. I had completely forgotten

it.

remind someone to do something (см.Unit 55b ).

sentence someone TO (a period of imprisonment):

- He was found guilty and sentenced to six months' imprisonment.

spend (money) ON something:

- How much money do you spend on food each week?

Note that we usually say `spend (time) doing something':

- I spend a lot of time reading.

throw something AT someone/something (in order to hit them):

- Someone threw an egg at the minister while he was speaking.

однако: throw something TO someone (for someone to catch):

- Ann shouted `Catch!' and threw the keys to me from the window.

translate (a book и т.д.) FROM one language INTO another

language:

- George Orwell's books have been translated into many languages.

warn someone ABOUT someone/something (of иногда также

возможен):

- I knew she was a bit strange before I met her. Tom had warned me

about her.

- Everybody has been warned about the dangers of smoking.

О `warn someone against doing something' см.Unit 60b

О `warn someone not to do something' см.Unit 55b .


О конструкции

глагол + дополнение + предлог +-ing см.Unit 60b.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:17 | Повідомлення № 130
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Unit 130

Phrasal verbs (get up, break down, fill in etc.)

(a) Глаголы часто употребляют со следующими словами:

on off in out up down away back

over about round forward through along

Мы часто употребляем следующие слова с глаголами

движения. Например:

get on The bus was full. We couldn't get on.

drive off She got into the car and drove off.

come back Tom is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday.

turn round When I touched him on the shoulder, he turned round.

Однако часто эти слова (on/off/up/down и т.д.)

изменяют смысл глагола.

Например:

- Sorry I'm late. The car broke down.

- Look out! There's a car coming.

- It was my first flight. I was very nervous as the plane took off.

- I was so tired this morning that I couldn't get up.

- How did you get on in your examination yesterday?

Такие словосочетания (break down/get up/get on..)

являются фразеологическими глаголами.

(b) Иногда фразеологические глаголы имеют дополнение.

Обычно возможны две позиции этих дополнений.

Так, можно сказать:

дополнение дополнение

I turned off the light. или I turned the light off.

Вот еще несколько примеров:

















- Could
you


fill
in
this form?


fill this form
in?


- It's
warm.


Take
off
your coat.


Take your coat
off.


- The
fire-brigade soon arrived and


put
out
the fire.


put the fire
out.


- I
think I'll


throw
away
these old newspapers.


throw these old
newspapers
away.


- The
police got into the house by


breaking
down
the door.


breaking the door
down.

Иногда дополнением к фразеологическому глаголу

является местоимение (it/them/me/you/him/her/us).

Такие местоимения стоят перед on off in out

up down и т.д.:

- They gave me a form and told me to fill it in. (но не `fill in it')

- Ann's asleep. Don't wake her up. (но не `wake up her')

- `What shall I do with these old newspapers?' `Throw them away.'

- Here's the money you need. Don't forget to pay me back.

( c) Иногда употребляют конструкцию

фразеологический глагол + предлог.

Например:look forward to / keep up with/

cut down on.

Дополнение всегда ставится после предлога:

- Are you looking forward to your holiday?

- You're walking too fast. I can't keep up with you.

- Jack has cut down on smoking. He only smokes five cigarettes a day

now.



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:18 | Повідомлення № 131
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Appendix 1


List of present and past tenses


 




















 


Present simple I do


(Unit 2,Unit 3,Unit 4)


 

I work in a bank but I don't enjoy it very much.

Tom watches television every evening.

Do you like parties?

We don't go out very often. We usually stay at home.


 


 


Present continuous I am doing


(Unit 1,Unit 3,Unit 4)


 

Please don't disturb me. I'm working.

"What's Tom doing?" "He's watching television."

Hello, Ann. Are you enjoying the party?

We aren't going to the party tomorrow night.


 


 


Present perfect I have done (Unit 13,Unit 21)


I've lost my key. Have you seen it anywhere?

`Is Tom here?' "No, he has gone home.'

How long have they been married?

The house is very dirty. We haven't cleaned it for weeks.


 


 


Present perfect continuous I have been doing


(Unit 16,Unit 17,Unit 18)


 

I'm tired. I've been working hard all day.

You're out of breath. Have you been running?

How long has he been learning English?

I haven't been feeling very well recently.


 


Past simple I did (Unit 11)


 

I lost my key yesterday.

They went to the cinema but they didn't enjoy the film.

What time did you get up this morning?

It was hot in the room, so she opened the window.


 


Past continuous I was doing (Unit 12)


 

When I arrived, Tom was watching television.

This time last year I was living in Brazil.

What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

The television was on but they weren't watching it.


 


 


Past perfect I had done (Unit 22)


 

I couldn't get into the house because I had lost my key.

When I arrived at the party, Tom wasn't there. He had gone home.

They didn't come to the cinema with us because they had already seen the film.

The house was dirty because we hadn't cleaned it for weeks.


 

.


 


Past perfect continuous I had been doing (Unit 23)


 

I was very tired. I had been working hard all day.

He was leaning against a wall, out of breath. He had been running.


 



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:26 | Повідомлення № 132
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Appendix 2


Regular and irregular verbs

1
Правильные
глаголы.

Past simple
и

past participle правильных

глаголов заканчиваются на
-ed.
Например:


 



infinitive

(основная
форма):

clean
improve
paint
carry


 

past
simple/

past
participle
:

cleaned
improved
painted
carried


 



Правила правописания смотрите
в
Appendix 3.


 

О past
simple

смотрите
Unit 11

Мы используем причастие прошедшего
времени
past

participle для создания perfect
tenses

(have/has/had cleaned) и всех форм
страдательного

залога(passive
forms
).

Смотрите Unit
42
,Unit 44:

- I
clean
ed my room yesterday. (past simple)

- Your
English has improv
ed.
(present perfect -
см.

Unit 13,Unit
21
)

- The
house was dirty. We hadn't clean
ed it for a long
time.
(past perfect
-

- см.(Unit
22
)

- This
door has just been paint
ed.
(present perfect
passive)

- He was
carri
ed out of the room. (past simple passive)


 

Когда past
simple

и

past participle

не заканчиваются на -ed, глагол является

неправильным.


 


2
Следующие глаголы могут быть правильными или

неправильными:


 



infinitive past simple /

past participle

infinitive past simple /

past participle


 

burn
burnt
или burned

dream
dreamt
или dreamed

lean
leant
или leaned

learn
learnt
или
learned

smell
smelt
или smelled

spell
spelt
или
spelled

spill
spilt
или
spilled

spoil
spoilt
или
spoiled


 

Вы можете сказать:

- I
leant out of the
window.
или I
leaned out of the
window.

- The
dinner has been
spoilt.
или The dinner has
been
spoiled.


 

В
British
English
неправильная форма

(burnt/learnt и т.д.) более
общепринятая.


 

3
Неправильные глаголы.

У некоторых неправильных
глаголов все три формы

(infinitive, past
simple
и
past participle)

одинаковые. Например,
hit:


 

- Someone
hit me as I came
into the room.
(past simple)

- I've
never
hit anyone in my
life.
(past
participle - present perfect)

- George
was
hit on the head by a
stone.
(past
participle - passive)


 

У некоторых неправильных глаголов форма

past
simple
такая же,
как
past participle

(но
отличается от
infinitive).

Например, tell -
told
:


 

- He
told me to come back
the next day.
(past
simple)

- Have
you
told anyone about
your new job?
(past
participle - present perfect)

- I was
told to come back the
next day.
(past
participle - passive)


 

Другие же неправильные глаголы имеют
все

три формы, отличающиеся друг
от друга.

Например, break - broke -
broken
:


 

- He
broke his arm in a
climbing accident.

(past simple)

-
Somebody has
broken the window.
(past participle -
present perfect)

- When
was the window
broken?
(past participle -
passive)



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:28 | Повідомлення № 133
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Appendix 2 - Regular and irregular verbsAppendix 2 - Regular and irregular verbs

4
Список неправильных
глаголов.


 


















 


infinitive


 


past


simple


 


past
participle


 


infinitive


 


past


simple


 

past

participle

be

beat

become

begin

bend

bet

bite

blow

break

bring

build

burst

buy

catch

choose

come

cost

cut

deal

dig

do

draw

drink

drive

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

fly

forbid

forget

forgive

freeze

get

give

go

grow

hang

have

hear

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

know

lay

lead

leave

lend

let

lie

light

was/were

beat

became

began

bent

bet

bit

blew

broke

brought

built

burst

bought

caught

chose

came

cost

cut

dealt

dug

did

drew

drank

drove

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

flew

forbade

forgot

forgave

froze

got

gave

went

grew

hung

had

heard

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knew

laid

led

left

lent

let

lay

lit

been

beaten

become

begun

bent

bet

bitten

blown

broken

brought

built

burst

bought

caught

chosen

come

cost

cut

dealt

dug

done

drawn

drunk

driven

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

flown

forbidden

forgotten

forgiven

frozen

got

given

gone

grown

hung

had

heard

hidden

hit

held

hurt

kept

known

laid

led

left

lent

let

lain

lit

lose

make

mean

meet

pay

put

read[ri:d]

ride

ring

rise

run

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shine

shoot

show

shrink

shut

sing

sink

sit

sleep

speak

spend

split

spread

spring

stand

steal

stick

sting

stink

strike

swear

sweep

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

throw

understand

wake

wear

win

write

lost

made

meant

met

paid

put

read[red]

rode

rang

rose

ran

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

shone

shot

showed

shrank

shut

sang

sank

sat

slept

spoke

spent

split

spread

sprang

stood

stole

stuck

stung

stank

struck

swore

swept

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

threw

understood

woke

wore

won

wrote

lost

made

meant

met

paid

put

read
[red]

ridden

rung

risen

run

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn/sewed

shaken

shone

shot

shown

shrunk

shut

sung

sunk

sat

slept

spoken

spent

split

spread

sprung

stood

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

struck

sworn

swept

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrown

understood

woken

worn

won

written


 



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
ShoolerДата: Четвер, 14.05.2009, 00:35 | Повідомлення № 134
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Appendix 3


Spelling


 


Существительные, глаголы и
прилагательные


могут иметь следующие
окончания:

существительное
+
-s/es(множ.число) books
idea
s matches


глагол + -s/es (после he/she/it) works
enjoy
s washes


глагол +
-ing working
enjoy
ing
wash
ing


глагол + -ed worked
enjoy
ed washed


прилагательное
+

-er
(сравнительная степень) cheaper
quicker
brighter


прилагательное
+

-est

(превосходная
степень)
 cheapest
quickest
brightest


прилагательное
+

-ly

(наречие) cheaply
quickly
brightly


 


Когда мы используем эти
окончания, правописание


слов иногда
меняется.


Эти изменения перечислены
ниже.

Гласные и согласные


a e i o u Гласные буквы


Буквы (b c d f и т.д.) Согласные буквы



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
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Гласные и согласные

a e i o u Гласные буквы

Буквы (b c d f и т.д.) Согласные буквы


 

1
Существительные и
глаголы +

-s/es.

Окончание -es пишется, когда слово

оканчивается
на

-s/-ss/-sh/-ch/-x:


 

match/matches
bus/bus
es box/boxes

wash/washes
miss/miss
es search/searches


 

Запомните также:


 

potato/potatoes
tomato/tomatoes

do/does
go/goes


 

2
Слова,
оканчивающиеся на
-y

(baby,
carry,
easy и
т.д.)


 

Если слово оканчивается
на

согласную букву +
y
(-by/-ry/-sy и
т.д.):


 

y
меняется на

ie
перед
-s:

baby/babies
lorr
y/lorries
countr
y/countries
secretar
y/secretaries
hurry/hurries
stud
y/studies
apply/applies
tr
y/tries

y
меняется на

i
перед
-ed:

hurry/hurried
stud
y/studied
appl
y/applied
tr
y/tried

y
меняется на

i
перед
-er и
-est:

easy/easier/easiest
heav
y/heavier/heaviest
luck
y/luckier/luckiest

y
меняется на

i
перед
-ly:

easy/easily
heav
y/heavily
temporar
y/temporarily


 

y
не
меняется перед
-ing:hurrying
studying
applying
trying


 

y
не меняется в словах, оканчивающихся на

гласную
букву +
y
(-ay/-ey/-oy/-uy):


 

play/plays/played
enjoy/enjoys/enjoyed
monkey/monkeys.


 

Исключение:
day/daily

Запомните
также:
pay/paid
lay/
laid
say/
said


 

3
Глаголы,
оканчивающиеся на
-ie

(die, lie, tie).

Если глагол оканчивается
на
-ie,

ie изменяется на y перед -ing:


 

lie/lying
die/dying
tie/tying


 

4
Слова,
оканчивающиеся на
-e

(smoke,
hope,
wide
т.д.)



Я - волк! И вожака хочу я трон.
Ведь жизнь имеет волчий нрав.
В ней справедливейший закон -
Кто всех сильнее тот и прав!
 
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