Past simple (I did)
(a) Изучите пример:
- I wrote a letter to my grandfather yesterday.
wrote - это время Past simple
Мы используем Past simple,чтобы рассказать о событиях или ситуациях в прошлом.
- Mr. Gosselyn read The Times, went to church on Sunday and
accompanied his wife to tea-parties.
- She won every prize that was open to her.
- It was two years later that Jimmie Langton discovered her.
- He blushed and his blue eyes shone.
- Her aunt talked in a deep loud voice.
(b) Очень часто мы употребляем Past simple tense c такими словами и фразами, как:
yesterday, last night, last week, last month,
last year,last summer(autumn, winter, spring),
at six(seven...) o'clock on Sunday(Monday...),
an hour(a week...) ago, the other day,
in 1994(1966), during the war(the revolution..)
- Mr. Smith began teaching in a secondary school in England in 1988.
- On Monday he came to the office by taxi.
- I went to Ireland in a fishing boat two years ago.
- Last month Tom and Jim visited Scotland and climbed
(b) Многие глаголы в Past simple tense
оканчиваются на -ed или d. Такие глаголы
- She walked round the garden with the colonel and listened
intellegently while he talked of peace.
- Her beauty created a sensation in Middlepool.
- He stayed in Middlepool for two years.
- She looked straight into his eyes.
- Julia smiled at the complacency on her husband's handsome face.
- Michael stared at them gravely.
Формулировку правил смотрите Appendix 3.
(d) Но много важных глаголов - неправильные
(irregular). Это означает, что past simple
не заканчивается на-ed.
1.Глаголы, в которых изменяется гласная в корне:
tell - told Mrs. Gosselyn told her about India.
give - gave He gave a little laugh of embarrasment.
take - took She took him into a small room behind the dining-room.
fly - flew The children flew to meet their mother.
see - saw I last saw Jill over three years ago.
2.Глаголы, в которых изменяется гласная в корне и добавляется -d или -t:
teach - taught Her aunt taught her how to walk and how to hold herself.
leave - left He left the room an hour ago.
sell - sold The baker sold good cakes.
bring - brought John brought his little brother to school.
buy - bought They bought that fruit from Greece.
catch - caught Mr. Brown caught the eight o'clock train.
3.Глаголы, в которых изменяется последняя d на t:
send - sent He sent a letter to his aunt yesterday.
build - built Jack built his house last autumn.
bend - bent That stormy night trees bent before the wind.
lend - lent The other day Dolly lent them money.
4.Глаголы, в которых одинаковая форма
infinitive и Past simple:
cut - cut Aunt Aggie cut the cake.
hit - hit The cruel driver hit the horse.
put - put Yesterday the worshippers put their gifts before the gods.
set - set The sailors, after quarreling with their captain,
set him adrift on the ocean in an open boat.
split - split The ship split in two under the force of the stormy waves.
burst - burst Dolly burst into laughter.
let - let The prisoner let himself down from his window with
a rope made of knotted sheets.
5.Глаголы, в которых разная грамматическая основа:
go - went Ann went up to the drawing-room.
Список неправильных глаголов смотрите Appendix 2.
(e) Но некоторые глаголы могут быть правильными
burn - burnt или burned
Вы можете сказать:
The old house burnt down The old house burned down
last night in the big fire. или last night in the big fire.
smell - smelt или smelled
The dog smelt at the stranger for или The dog smelled at the stranger for
a minute but did not recognize him. a minute but did not recognize him.
dream - dreamt или dreamed
I dreamt of my old home last night. или I dreamed of my old home last night.
Список этих глаголов смотрите Appendix 2.
(f) Формой past simple от глагола be (am/is/are)
I/he/she/it was we/you/they were
Julia was quick-witted.
She was a born actress.
Michael's eyes were heavy with tears.
(g) В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях
с Past simple мы используем
did/didn't + инфинитив (do/open/rain и т.д.):
- Did they like the idea of his going on the stage?
They didn't like the idea of his going on the stage.
- Did Tom dance with Helen yesterday?
No, Tom didn't dance with Helen yesterday.
- She knew that she didn't look well in costume.
(h) Запомните,что обычно используются
did/didn't с have:
- Did you have a bath this morning?
- We didn't have any more flowers in the garden.
Но с глаголом be (was/were) мы
не употребляем did:
Например:- Was he at home yesterday?
- He was not exactly mean, but he was not generous.
О past simple смотрите Unit 12, Unit 20, Unit 21.